HTML Quick Reference

HTML is composed of a set of elements that define a document and guide its display. An HTML element may include a name, some attributes and some text or hypertext, and will appear in an HTML document as

For example:


An HTML document is composed of a single element:

that is, in turn, composed of head and body elements:


To allow older HTML documents to remain readable, <html>, <head>, and <body> are actually optional within HTML documents.

Elements restricted to the head element

Specify index file
<title> . . . </title>
Specify document title
Set a variable value. Attribute: variable name
Specify relationships to other documents. Attributes: same as Anchor below
Specify the name of the file in which the current document is stored. This is useful when link references within the document do not include full pathnames (i.e., are partially qualified)

The following sections describe elements that can be used in the body of the document.

Text Elements

The end of a paragraph that will be formatted before it is displayed on the screen
<pre> . . . </pre>
Identifies text that has already been formatted (preformatted) by some other system and must be displayed as is. Preformatted text may include embedded tags, but not all tag types are permitted. Attribute: width
<listing> . . . </listing>
Example computer listing; embedded tags will be ignored, but embedded tabs will work
<blockquote> . . . </blockquote>
Include a section of text quoted from some other source.

Hyperlinks or Anchors

<a name="target_anchor_name"> . . . </a>
Define a target location in a document
<a href="#anchor_name"> . . . </a>
Link to a location in the same file
<a href="URL"> . . . </a>
Link to another file
<a href="URL#target_string"> . . . </a>
Link to a target location in another file
Required attributes for anchors: one of name or href.

Optional attributes: rel, rev, urn, title, methods.

The structure of a Universal Resource Location (URL) is similar to:

where the possible resource types include: file, http, news, gopher, telnet, and wais, and the colon followed by the TCP port number is optional. A more complete description is presented in


<h1> . . . </h1>
Most prominent header
<h2> . . . </h2>
<h3> . . . </h2>
<h4> . . . </h4>
<h5> . . . </h5>
<h6> . . . </h6>
Least prominent header

Logical Styles

<em> . . . </em>
<strong> . . . </strong>
Stronger emphasis
<code> . . . </code>
Display an HTML directive
<samp> . . . </samp>
Include sample output
<kbd> . . . </kbd>
Display a keyboard key
<var> . . . </var>
Define a variable
<dfn> . . . </dfn>
Display a definition
<cite> . . . </cite>
Display a citation

Physical Styles

<b> . . . </b>
Bold font
<i> . . . </i>
<u> . . . </u>
<tt> . . . </tt>
Typewriter font

Definition list/glossary: <dl>

<dt> First term to be defined
<dd> Definition of first term
<dt> Next term to be defined
<dd> Next definition
The <dl> attribute compact can be used to generate a definition list requiring less space.

Present an unordered list: <ul>

<li> First item in the list
<li> Next item in the list

Present an ordered list: <ol>

<li> First item in the list
<li> Next item in the list

Present an interactive menu: <menu>

<li> First item in the menu
<li> Next item

Present a directory list of items: <dir>

<li> First item in the list
<li> Second item in the list
<li> Next item in the list
Items should be less than 20 characters long.


Display a particular character identified by a special keyword. For example the entity &amp; specifies the ampersand ( & ), and the entity &lt; specifies the less than ( < ) character. Note that the semicolon following the keyword is required, and the keyword must be one from the list presented in
Use a character literally. Again note that the semicolon following the ASCII numeric value is required.
<!-- text >
Place a comment in the HTML source
<address> . . . </address>
Present address information

Elements currently under development

<img src="URL"> . . . </img>
Include a graphic image. Implemented by NCSA Mosaic only

Additional Information

For a tutorial introduction to HTML see:

For a reference information on HTML see:

Michael Grobe
Academic Computing Services
The University of Kansas